Depending on the types of billiards, billiards are used differently such as pool, carom (France) or snooker often use small marbles. The sizes and weights of these marbles depend on the particular playing genre but have different sizes and weights.
According to the documents, the first billiard ball was made from wood and clay (to the 20th century some places still apply). Although it is affordable, in Europe, beef bones are quite popular to make billiard balls, but from 1627 to the 20th century people preferred to use ivory as a material. By the middle of the 19th century, the killing of elephants for ivory became an alarm, so it was decided not to make more than 8 tablets per ivory. And with such rampant hunting, elephants were pushed to the brink of extinction, a New York supplier awarded prizes of up to $10,000 to anyone who found a substitute material. So (today, the award is still there, but the reward is only about 178 dollars)
By 1969, John Wesley Hyatt created a compound called nitrocellulose and became the first American to create billiard balls. By 1870, another compound was invented, Celluloid, which unfortunately is volatile when produced and sometimes exploded. However, the evidence to support it is not clear.
Then, to avoid material instability, other synthetic materials were tested such as Bakelite, Crystalite and several other compounds.
Today’s high demands for precision billiard balls have been met by billiard ball molds from plastic materials that have stiff properties that resist breaking or chipping to billiard balls. Currently, Saluc, under the names of firms like Aramith and Brunswick Centennial, produces balls from phenol. Other plastics and plastics such as Polium ester (Polyester) (under different trade names) and Acrylic resin are also used, by competing between companies such as Elephant Balls Ltd, Frenzy Sports and Vigma.
Types of marbles
In the carom billiards marbles are not numbered and distinguished by the color of the marbles.
- Red shade
- White ball
- 2nd white shade (some places use yellow shade for easy distinction)
Billiards international hole
There are a total of 15 marbles numbered from 1 to 15 and 1 marbles are white or ivory white. Depending on the style of play, people use 9 balls (9 ball pool) or all 15 balls (pool 8 ball). The color and number of marbles are specified as follows
1 = gold
2 = green
3 = red
4 = Purple (it may be pink depending on the kit)
5 = orange
6 = dark green
7 = brown or dark brown
8 = black
9 = white yellow stripes
10 = blue and white stripes
11 = red white stripe
12 = purple white stripe (or pink white stripe)
13 = oranges with white stripes
14 = green with white stripes
15 = brown or dark brown with white stripe
Billiard-hole in English style
Similar to Pool 8 ball consists of 15 marbles, including 1 white, 1 black ball and 2 groups of red and yellow marbles (each side 7 balls).
A pool of American hole billiards (9 ball pool, 8 ball pool…) and English hole billiards consists of 21 target marbles and 1 master ball. In it, there are 15 red marbles worth 1 point. The remaining 6 colored marbles have different scores, namely:
Gold = 2 points
Green = 3 points
Brown = 4 points
Green = 5 points
Pink = 6 points
Black = 7 points